Tehran has a special position due to its geographical location. The establishment on the southern slopes of the Alborz Mountains has brought rich and rich water resources and temperate climatic conditions. The slopes and valleys of the Alborz Mountains provide special conditions for escaping the heat and drought of the southern deserts. The southern plains, with the exception of drought and desert areas, are a good platform for the establishment of agriculture and a variety of activities in this sector. In terms of location, according to Tehran’s conditions and locations for population deployment, there is a central location for access and management of the land. A glance at the geography of the land of Iran and the distribution of spatial populations and patterns of habitat, illustrates this distinctive and privileged position. The numerous environmental problems that exist in Iran, such as various contaminations, have been due to excessive pressure and lack of attention to the environmental abilities of this part of the territory, as a result of unsuitable spatial conditions. This chapter, after presenting a brief history of Tehran and its administrative divisions, will give a glimpse of some of the geographical characteristics of Tehran metropolis.